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51找翻译 • 2 年前 • 1084 次点击  
Abbreviations in Note taking
Use only the abbreviations that fit your needs and that you will remember easily. A good idea is to introduce only a few abbreviations into your note taking at a time.

Symbols helpful in math -- these are commonly used in texts and references.
S   =   sum
f   =   frequency

Leave out periods in standard abbreviations.
cf   =   compare
e.g.   =   example
dept   =   department

Use only the first syllable of a word.
pol   =   politics
dem   =   democracy
lib   =   liberal
cap   =   capitalism

Use entire first syllable and only 1st letter of 2nd syllable.
pres   =   presentation
subj   =   subject
ind   =   individual
cons   =   conservative

Eliminate final letters. Use just enough of the word to form a recognizable abbreviation.
assoc   =   associate
biol   =   biology
info   =   information
ach   =   achievement
chem   =   chemistry
max   =   maximum
intro  =   introduction
conc   =   concentration
min   =   minimum
rep   =   repetition

Omit vowels, retain only enough consonants to give a recognizable skeleton of the word.
ppd   =   prepared
prblm   =   problem
estmt   =   estimate
bkgd   =   background
gvt   =   government
Use an apostrophe in place of letters.
am't   =   amount
cont'd   =   continued
gov't   =   government
educat'l   =   educational

Form the plural of a symbol or abbreviated word by adding s.
chpts   =   chapters
egs   =   examples
fs   =   frequencies
intros   =   introductions

Use g to represent ing endings.
ckg   =   checking
estg   =   establishing
decrg   =   decreasing
exptg   =   experimenting

Spell out short words such as in, at, to, but, for, and key.

Abbreviations or symbols for short words will make the notes too dense with shorthand.

Leave out unimportant words.
Leave out the words a and the.

If a term, phrase, or name is written out in full during the lecture, substitute initials whenever the term, phrase, or name is used again. For example, Center for Aerospace Sciences becomes CAS thereafter.

Use symbols for commonly recurring connective or transitional words.
&   =   and
w/   =   with
w/o   =   without
vs   =   against
\   =   therefore
=    =   is or equal

Use technical symbols where applicable.
zb   =   German, for example
ibid   =   Latin, the same work
o   =   degrees
H2O   =   water

More reference:
Use standard maths, accounting, and science symbols. Examples:
+ plus
// parallel
Use standard abbreviations and leave out full stops. Examples:
eg example
IT dept Information Technology department
UK United Kingdom
Use only the first syllable of a word. Examples:
mar marketing
cus customer
cli client
Use the entire first syllable and the first letter of the second syllable. Examples:
subj subject
budg budget
ind individual
To distinguish among various forms of the same word, use the first syllable of the word, an apostrophe, and the ending of the word. Examples:
tech'gy technology
gen'ion generalisation
del'y delivery
Use just enough of the beginning of a word to form a recognisable abbreviation. Examples:
assoc associated
ach achievement
info information
Omit vowels from the middle of words, retaining only enough consonants to provide a recognisable skeleton of the word. Examples:
bkgd background
mvmt movement
prblm problem
Form the plural of a symbol or abbreviated word by adding 's.' Examples:
custs customers
fs frequencies
/s ratios
Use 'g' to represent 'ing' endings. Examples:
decrg decreasing
ckg checking
estblg establishing
Spell out, rather than abbreviate short words. Examples:
Leave out unimportant verbs. Examples:
Leave out unnecessary articles. Examples:
If a term, phrase, or name is initially written out in full during the talk or meeting, initials can be substituted whenever the term, phrase, or name is used again. Example:
January Advertising Campaign Budget JACB
Use symbols for common connective or transition words. Examples:
@ at
2 to
4 for
& and
w/ with
w/o without
vs against
Create your own set of abbreviations and symbols. You may wish to develop separate sets of symbols and abbreviations for different courses or subjects.
Other Symbols and Abbreviations
as a result of / consequences of <--->
resulting in --->
and / also +
equal to / same as =
following ff
most importantly *
less than <

greater than > especially esp/

一、 缩略词
英语当中缩略词使用的频率很高,如IMP: important, ASAP: as soon as possible。很显然如果能熟练掌握缩略词,会对考试大有裨益。
MKT: market
MGR: manager
MSG: message
STD: standard
RCV: receive
INFO information
INS insurance
EXCH exchange
I owe you IOU
In stead of I/O
WK week
RM room
PL people
R are
THO though
THRU through


缩略词 原词
APT Apartment
ACC Accountant
ACDG According
ACPT Accept
AD Advertisement
ADS Address
ADV Advice
AMAP As much/many as possible
AMT Amount
APV Approve
ASAP As soon as possible
BAL Balance
BLDG Building
CERT Certificate
CFM Conform
CNCL Cancel
CNF Conference
CMI Commission
CMP Complete
CMPE Compete/competitive
CMU Communication
CONC Concern/concerning/concerned
COND Condition
CO. Company
DEPT Department
DISC Discount
DPT Departure
EXCH Exchange
EXPLN Explain
EXT Extent
FLT Flight
FNT Final
FRT Freight
FYR For your reference
GD Good
GUAR Guarantee
H.O. Home office
INFO Information
IMPS Impossible
IMP(T) Important
INCD Include
INDIV Individual
INS Insurance
INTST Interested
I/O In stead of
IOU I owe you
IVO In view of
MANUF Manufacture
MDL Model
MEMO Memorandum
MGR Manger
MIN Minimum
MKT Market
MSG Message
NCRY Necessary
NLT No later than
OBS Observe
OBT Obtain
ORD Ordinary
PAT Patent
PC Piece
PKG Packing
PL People
PLS Please
POSN Position
POSS(BL) Possible
PROD Product
QLTY Quality
QUTY Quantity
RCV Receive
REF Reference
REGL Regular
REP Representative
RESN Reservation
RPT Repeat
RESPON Responsible
SEC Section
SITN Situation
STD Standard
TEL Telephone
TEMP Temporary
TGM Telegraph
THO Though
TKS Thanks
TRD Trade
TRF Traffic
TTL Total
U You
UR Your
WK Week
WL Will
WT Weight
XL Extra large

二、 字母、图像
Z 表示"人"people/person,因为"Z"看上去像个人头,它通常被写在一个词或符号的右上角。例如:日本人:JZ。
C 表示政府,统治:government,govern 希腊字母C读/ga:ma/,近似government, 所以就用C来表示govern, government。governmental official 可以表示为 CZ
P 表示政治:politics, political希腊字母P读/pai/,近似politics, political。那么politician就可以表示为 PZ
E 表示总数:total, totally, entire, entirely, on the whole, all in all, to sum up, ect.  E 数学符号表示总值。
G 表示效率:efficient, effective。G为效率符号。
Q 表示"通货膨胀":inflation因为这个符号酷似一个上升的气球。
A 表示农业: agriculture. agriculture经常用到,所以用首字母代替。
B 表示商业:business。
C× 表示冲突,矛盾:conflict, confrontation "C×"中的"×"表示反对,字母"C"将反对的概念缩小为conflict 和 confrontation。
W 表示工作,职业: work, employ 等。它是work的第一个字母。所以WZ就可以用来表示worker, 而W(Z在字母上方表示employer, 在字母下方表示employee)。
i 表示工业: industry, industrial 字母i 像只烟囱,所以用来可以用来表示工业。
U U 看酷似一个酒杯,在笔记中表示合同、协议(treaty, agreement) 一般只有在谈判成功、协议成交后才会表示"举杯祝贺"。如果在U内填入2××××,就可以表示为bilateral(双边的), 填入3表示为trilateral(三边的)。填入在U中填入1表示: Unilateralism(单边主义),填入m (multiple) 表示多边主义。如果在U上加一个"/"××××表示谈判破裂。
O 表示"国家"、"民族"、"领土"等:country, state, nation, etc.gO表示进口,Og表示出口
这个符号酷似一把椅子,可以表示主持、主办:chair, host, preside over。那么在此符号上加Z表示主席,主持人:chairman, host, etc.
T 表示"领导人":leader, head那么head of government, head of company 便可以表示为 CT
⊙ 圆圈表示一个圆桌,中间一点表示一盆花,这个符号就可以表示会议、开会等:meeting,conference, negotiation,seminar,discussion,symposium
k 这个符号看上像条鱼,所以表示"捕鱼业"等合fishery 有关的词汇。
O 圆圈代表地球,横线表示赤道,所以这个符号就可以表示国际的、世界的、全球的等: international, worldwide, global, universal, etc.
J 表示开心:pleasant, joyful,happy,excited, etc.
L 表示不满、生气unsatisfied, discomfort, angry, sad, etc.
EO 表示听到、总所周之:as we all know, as is known to all, as you have already heard of, etc.
O 表示漠不关心、无动于衷:indifferent, apathetic, unconcern, don't care much, etc.

三、 箭头
g 表示到达、传达:go into,arrive at,give to,send to,present to etc.
表示导致、引导:lead to, result in, in the direction of, etc.
表示屈服:submit to
f 表示来自于:be/come from,return,receive from, etc.
表示追溯到:come/go back to,originate
h 表示上升:up/upward/rise,increase,arise,ascend, etc.
表示发射、投放市场、发行:launch,open, start, etc.
表示发展、加强、推进:develop,strengthen, promote, etc
表示"波折":ups and downs, twists and turns, etc.

四、 数学符号
+ 表示"多": many, lots of, a great deal of, a good many of, etc.
++(+2) 表示"多"的比较级:more
+3 表示"多"的最高级:most
- 表示"少": little, few, lack ,in short of/ be in shortage of etc.
× 表示"错误"、"失误"和"坏"的概念:wrong/incorrect,something bad,notorious,negative, etc.
> 表示"多于"概念:bigger/larger/greater/more than/better than, etc.
表示"高" 概念:superior to,surpass, etc.
< 表示"少于"概念:less/smaller,etc.
表示"低"概念:inferior to,etc.
= 表示"同等"概念:means,that is to say, in other words,the same as,be equal to, etc.
表示"对手"概念:a match, rival, competitor, counterpart, etc.
( ) 表示"在......之间":among, within, etc.
≠ 表示"不同"概念:be different from, etc.
表示"无敌"概念:matchless, peerless, etc.
~ 表示"大约"概念:about/around,or so, approximately, etc.
/ 表示"否定","消除"等概念:cross out, eliminate, etc.

五、 标点等
: 表示各种各样"说"的动词:say, speak, talk, marks, announce, declare, etc.
? 表示"问题":question,issue,例如:台湾问题:tw?
. (dot) 这个"."点的位置不同表示的概念也不一样".d"表示yesterday, ".y"表示last year, ".2m"表示two month ago。"y"表示this year, "y2." two year later"next week", 可以表示为"wk."
∧ 表示转折
√ 表示"好的"状态,right/good,famous/well-known,etc.
表示"同意"状态,stand up for,support, agree with sb, certain/ affirmative, etc.
☆ 表示"重要的"状态:important,exemplary(模范的) best,outstanding,brilliant,etc.
n 表示"交流"状态:exchange,mutual, etc.
&  表示"和","与":and,together with,along with, accompany,along with,further more,etc.
∥ 表示"结束":end,stop,halt,bring sth to a standstill/stop, etc.

六、 较长单词的处理办法
-ism   简写为  m 例如:socialism Sm
-tion  简 简写为  n 例如:standardization (标准化)  stdn
-cian 简 简写为  o 例如:technician  techo
-ing 简写为  g 例如:marketing (市场营销) MKTg
-ed 简写为  d 例如:accepted  acptd
-able/ible/ble 简写为  bl 例如:available avbl
-ment 简写为  mt 例如:amendment  amdmt
-ize 简写为  z 例如:recognize regz
-ful 简写为  fl 例如:meaningful mnfl


Last edited at (2016-01-14 21:55)

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